Classification of Living Things

1. The Kingdom Fungia. The kingdom fungi has 80,000 different species.  There are 6 divisions (phylum) of the kingdom fungi. The three important divisions are Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, and Ascomycota.

General and Distinctive features of the Kingdom Fungi
a. They have no roots, stems, or leaves
b. They lack chlorophyll, are non-photosynthetic and have to get their own food by feeding on dead plants or animals. (Notice the lack of green, because lack of chlorophyll)
c. Most fungi have cell walls made of chitin, which is a substance made up of proteins and sugar
d. Their body is made of a network of small, tube-like filaments called hyphae
e. Fungi store carbohydrates as glycogen
f. Fungi reproduce asexually by small structures called spores.

The Three Main Divisions (Phyla) of the Fungi Kingdom

a. Basidiomycota
i. Basidiomycota is the most common division of the Fungi Kingdom. Mushrooms and toadstools are in this division.
ii. The part of the mushroom that grows above the ground is the reproductive body and is divided into a stem, cap, and gills.
iii. Spores are released from the gills and are dispersed by the wind.

b. Zygomycota
i. Zygomycota grows on rotting material and looks like small white string. An example of Zygomycota is bread mold.

c. Ascomycota
i. Ascomycota are single-celled organisms called yeasts that grow on the surface of rotting fruit and reproduce by budding.  We use yeast to bake bread.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Kingdom Fungi

a. Advantages
i. Yeast is used to bake bread.
ii. Yeast is used to produce alcohol from sugar, a process called fermentation.
iii. Molds are used to make antibiotics, like penicillin.
iv. Molds are used to make cheese.
v. Mushrooms are used as food.
vi. Some fungi can be used to produce proteins.
vii. Fungi can be used in research in genetic engineering.

b. Disadvantages
i. Fungi can spoil food.
ii. Fungi can destroy crops.
iii. Fungi can destroy wood and harm our houses and furniture.
iv. Fungi can cause disease, like Athlete’s foot, head ringworm, and thrush.

1.2 Kingdom Plantae

1. The Kingdom Plantae
a. The kingdom plantae is very large and contains many plants.
b. Although organisms in this group look very different, they all get their nutrition from a process called photosynthesis.
c. Photosynthesis is a way to manufacture food from simple materials with the help of the sun.

2. General and Distinctive features of the Kingdom Plantae

a. In all plants, the cell walls are made up of cellulose.
b. They are able to practice photosynthesis.
c. They have chlorophylld. They are multicellular and the plant body is separated into tissues, organs, and systems.

3. Kingdom Plantae can be divided into 4 Divisions
a. Bryophyta- mosses and liverworts
b. Pteridophyta- ferns
c. Coniferophyta- pines and conifers
d. Angiospermophyta- flowering plants

1.2.1 Division of Bryophyta 
1. Bryophyta
a. Bryophyta are mosses and liverworts.  They live on the land, but can only grow in wet places because they have no way to carry water. They also need water to reproduce.
b. General and distinctive features of the Division Bryophyta.
 i. They have no true roots, stems, or leaves.
ii. No vascular tissue (xylem or phloem)
iii. They reproduce by using spores

1.2.2 Division Filicinophyta (Pteridophyta) 
1. Division Filicinophyta
a. These are ferns.  They need water for fertilization.
b. They have true roots, stems, and leaves.
c. They reproduce by using spores.
d. General and distinctive features of the Division Filicinophyta

i. They have true roots, stems, and leaves.
ii. They have vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
iii. The leaves produce sori which later produces spores so the fern can reproduce.
iv. The leaves are called fronds.
v. They live in damp and shady places.

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Major groups of living things

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