Biology Lessons & Notes - FORMS I, II, III, IV

HOW TO STUDY FOR EXAMS - How to prepare for exams




Introduction to Biology

Basic concepts and terminologies of Biology - Biology is the study of living things or organisms.

Living things share life process  (or seven characteristics).

a. Locomotion: All living things move.
b. Nutrition: All living things feed by taking in nutrients in order to obtain energy.
c. Irritability:  All living things are sensitive to their surroundings.
d. Reproduction: All living things make more of their own kind.e. Growth: All living things get bigger and repair damage.
f. Excretion: All living things get rid of toxic substances.
g. Respiration: All living things take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

A Cell is a unit of living matter. All things are made up of cells. 

There are two main branches of biology

a. Botany is the study of plants.
b. Zoology is the study of animals

Why do we study biology?

a. Biology helps us understand life
b. Biology helps us understand ourselves
c. Biology helps us understand the differences between plants and animals.
d. Biology helps us understand our enviroment and how to protect it.
e. The study of biology gives skills and knowledge that can be used in other areas.

Biology relates to the study of medicine, environment, engineering, farming, ect.

Scientific processes in biology
A Biologist is someone who studies living things.a. The scientific method is the process by which scienctics answer scientific questions through a series of investigations.

The 6 steps of the scientific method

1. Identifying the Problem
2. Hypthesis
3. Experimentation
4. Data Collection
5. Data Analysis and interpretation
6. Conclusion

  • Scientific questioning is the questions that may come up when you are observing that will need to be answered.  
  • Hypothesis is an explanation or answer to these questions.  A hypothesis is an educated guess and may not always be right.
  • Experimentation is the process of doing a series of investigations in order to test a hypothesis.
  • Observation is when we use sight, smell, touch, taste, or hearing to describe what we are studying.
  • Measurement is when we use a set unit to describe a factor of the thing that we are studying.

6 Things that we measure are:

  1. Mass is how heavy something is.  It is measured in grams (g) or kilograms (kg)
  2. Length is the how long or wide something is.  It is measured in centimeters (cm), meters (m) and kilometers (km)
  3. Time is measured in seconds, minutes, and hours.
  4. Temperature is how hot or cold something is.  Temperature is measured in degrees.
  5. Rate is how quickly something changes.  It is usually measured in kilometers per hour.
  6. Volume is the amount of space something takes up.  It is usually measured in liters.

Cell Structure and Organization 

Classification of Living Things

Major groups of living things

Digestive system in humans